Reading the CCP Notice on Diligently Studying and Implementing the Standards and the Regulations

In various European countries, different persons are using their own technique to read Chinese legal texts, so I thought I would share mine as I go on constructing it. This is an important endeavor: European sinologists and political scientists were perhaps the first ones who attempted to read and understand Chinese legal texts. Their techniques - as well as the ones used in Australia  - however rest for the most part upon the tacit, and practical knowledge each interpreter has acquired over the years by trial and error. This knowledge should be made explicit: multitasking and  information overflow (very few people still read the paper texts of legal documents) are changing the way we read, with the result that these techniques are slowly being lost. 

In this post I will explain by simple questions and answers what I focus on when I read some legal texts, using the 'Notice on Diligently Studying and Implementing the CCP Standards on Integrity and Self-Restraint (original|translationand the CCP Regulations on Disciplinary Punishments' (original|partial translation) as an example. The full text of the Notice can be found here (Chinese).

What typology of document is this? 

The Notice on Diligently its title says is a Notice/通知. Notices/通知 are used either to disseminate documents, or to issue communications to Party or to state bureaucracies. The 'Standards' and the 'Regulations' were issued by a notice. The goal of the Notice on Diligently not disseminating these texts, but explaining why and how the 'Standards' and the 'Regulations' should be taught and studied, and making their study mandatory. 

Is it a public document? 

If it is not a public document, then you cannot read it...if it is a public document, then the next questions to ask are:

Which institution issued it? 

The Notice was issued by the General Office: 

The Central General Office is responsible for  coordinating the enactment of Party laws and regulations; its agency for regulatory work is responsible for specific duties.  (Art. 6, par. 2 Zhongfa [2012] no. 5 )

Where was it published?  

The Notice was published on the front page of the paper edition of the People's Daily, in a column:

 ....and on the landing page of the People's Daily website 

and on the frontpage of the Procuratorial Daily, the People's Police Daily etc. The importance of any document is signaled by the media outlet where the document is published and by its positioning on a newspaper or internet website.    

When was it published? 

The timing when speeches, notices, regulations etc. are published can and does vary. Xi Jinping's speech on culture and the arts, for instance, was delivered on 15 October 2014 but, its full text was released on 15 October 2015, eleven days before the date of the Fifth Plenum. The 'Standards' and the 'Regulations' were issued on 18 October, and the Notice came out today - on the closing day of the Fifth Plenum. 

Is an official translation available? 

If an official translation is available, then an official translation should be used, and read alongside the Chinese text. Great care goes in producing the official translation of legal and political documents. The choice of words used to translate the equivalent Chinese characters can be taken to reflect how legal concepts and/or political concepts are  (in part) understood by those who supervised the translators, and how they are meant to be understood by readers. The risk inherent in producing one's own translations of available documents (or improving available official translations) is pre-imposing our own understanding of legal or political concepts on the text. For instance, translating 宽严相济 as 'tempering justice with mercy' is a choice that produces definite effects on what the text will mean to U.S. trained lawyers. 'Balancing leniency and severity' may sound unfamiliar to the ears of a U.S. trained lawyer but, it has the advantage of being closer to at least some of the ideas the sight of 宽严相济 evokes. Not all of the ideas that come to one's mind whenever one sees 宽严相济 (or anything else) are legal concepts. It is possible that seeing the four ideograms will remind one of proverbs (成语 chengyu), stories from the Chinese classics, episodes in Chinese history etc. All of these ideas can in turn shed light on the broader meaning of  宽严相济 in Chinese law because, they are part of the context where 宽严相济 was created and used. 

Is this document as important as it seems? 

To this question there are many possible answers. To some the Notice may be unimportant - the sky is high and the Emperor far away, therefore local Party organs may or may not abide by the Notice they would argue. Others may say that even though study sessions on the 'Standards' and the 'Regulations' may be mandatory, those attending study sessions will pay more attention to their iPhones and iPads screens than to the 'Standards' and the 'Regulations'. 

To me, the Notice is very important because it is one of the various explanatory texts that are being produced at the moment of writing. Some of these texts explain the genesis of the 'Standards' and the 'Regulations', while the Notice explains why and how they should be taught and studied. 

Why, according to the CCP, the 'Regulations' and the 'Standards' should be taught and studied. 

This point is illustrated by the opening sentence(s) of each one of the paragraphs of art. 1 of the Notice: 

To take care of the affairs of China the focus must be placed on the Party. 'To rule the state one must first rule the Party', and 'the Party should be governed strictly'. [1]
Since the 18th Party Congress the Party with Comrade Xi Jinping as its General Secretary has upheld 'the Party should rule the Party and the Party should be ruled severely' (...) it has summarized the lessons of Zhou Yongkang, Bo Xilai, Xu Caihou, Ling Jihua, Guo Boxiong (...) the fruits of these experiences in severely ruling the Party have been summarized and turned into moral and disciplinary requirements (...) [2]
Natural requirements of 'Comprehensively severely ruling the Party' are 'combining ruling the Party according to regulations and ruling the Party according to virtue/morality' (de 德) [3]

In documents as this one, the opening sentence of each paragraph is the most important one, because it sets forth the premises, which are then elaborated by the rest of each paragraph, that should guide the correct use of the 'Standards' and 'Regulations'. I will explain how I read sentences as 'To rule the state one must first rule the Party', and 'the Party should be governed strictly' in a later post.

How the 'Standards' and the 'Regulations' should be taught and studied, and by whom. 

The 'Standards' and the 'Regulations' should be taught by the Party Committee Core Groups, by Party schools, by schools of public administrations and by cadre training institutes in 2016 and 2017. The 'Notice' does not specify which method should be used to study or teach these documents. 

Study and teaching are necessary to understand the real significance of the 'Standards' and the 'Regulations'. The significance is illustrated by the Notice as follows: 1) the 'Standards' and the 'Regulations' add greater specificity to the rules set by the Party statute. 2) Political discipline is the most important kind of discipline, on grounds that state capacity and legitimacy derive from the ability to maintain political discipline. 3) Party members must be held to a higher standard of behavior than persons not affiliated to the Party. 

These three points are meant to guide, to frame how the 'Standards' and the 'Regulations' are to be understood, and in turn used. 



Regulations on Disciplinary Punishments: Violations of the personality of the Party - Chapter 6

This post outlines the content of Chapters 3, 4, and 5 of the General Part, Regulations on Disciplinary Punishment, and then comments on Chapter 6 – Violations of Political Discipline. 

Previous posts:


As I wrote last week, the Regulations on Disciplinary Punishments play, in the economy of intra-Party legislation, the same role the Criminal Law of the PRC plays in the state's legal system. The structure of the Regulations closely mirrors the structure of the Criminal law. 

Chapter 1 of the Regulations lists their goals and principles,  Chapter 2 specifies the concept of “disciplinary responsibility” (art. 6), and describes disciplinary punishments for Party members and Party organizations. Chapter 3 contains rules on: 

- mitigating and aggravating circumstances (articles 16, 17, 19, 20)
- sentencing (articles 20, 21, 22)
- exemption from disciplinary punishment (art. 18)
- unified punishment for multiple violations of discipline (articles 23, 24)
- joint violations of discipline and instigation to violate discipline (art. 25)
- negligent violations of discipline (art. 26)

Chapter 4 contains rules on: 
- the mandatory punishment of disciplinary violations (articles 27, 28, 29)
- deprivation of active and passive voting rights (31)
- the mandatory transfer of cases to judicial organs (30)
- the relationship between disciplinary punishment and criminal punishment (articles 32, 33, 34)

Chapter 5 lists miscellaneous rules on disciplinary violations by prospective Party members (art. 35), by Party members who have gone into hiding (art. 36), and by deceased Party members (art. 37). It defines vicarious liability (art. 38), voluntary confession (art. 39), direct economic loss (art. 40) etc.

The General Part of the Regulation has attracted less attention than the Special Part (Chapters 6 – 10). The Western press has commented on the decision to punish conducts as “forming cliques” (Quartz), "extravagant eating and drinking" (Reuters), and "holding golf club membership" (BBC) in slightly sarcastic ways. Perplexity has been expressed by Weibo and Weixin users, too. There is, however, nothing sarcastic about the rationale behind the decision to prohibit the formation of "cliques" (as distinct from legitimate CSOs), the propaganda of capitalist liberalization, etc. 

Continental criminal codes list conducts that constitute crimes against the personality of the State in the first chapter of the special part. The choice as to how to organize some European criminal codes reflects the ideas that prevailed at the time when codes were drafted. 

The CCP was established at a different time and in a completely different context. The choice to open the special part of the Regulations with a chapter on violations of political discipline is consistent with the role the CCP plays in China's political system. As Zhang Hui (deputy secretary of the CCDI) stated earlier today to the press: "political discipline is the most important and most fundamental discipline".

But...what is political discipline? In my understanding, political discipline includes all the rules of conduct necessary to protect the personality of the Party

The point of the personality of the Party is still very much debated by Western scholars of Chinese law. The general consensus, a consensus that dates back to the late 1980s, is that under the law of the PRC the Party has no legal personality. I will not go into the legal technicalities of this argument. Under this argument, if under PRC law legal personality is acquired when a group of natural persons  creates and successfully registers an organization, and if the CCP never registered as a social organization, then the CCP has no legal personality under PRC law. 

This argument misses a key distinction between the CCP and CSOs. The CCP was established to reach an openly acknowledged goal: changing the pre-1949 political order, and creating a new social, moral, and political system. The CCP is a membership-based, political organization that pursues a revolutionary goal. CSOs may be membership-based organizations but, they do not pursue a revolutionary goal in the same sense as the CCP did between 1921 and 1949. 

The concept of political personality may be more useful to understand the reason why conducts as "using the internet to oppose the opening up and reform policy" violate Party discipline.

But, again...what is the political personality of the Party? The political personality of the CCP is given by the motivations, values, and behavioral tendencies that prevail among the members of the CCP.  Chapter 6 of the Regulations has the goal to avoid that Party members deviate from the promise they have made to do or not to do something, and to believe or not to believe in certain values in political morality, and to act upon them. 

The promise a person makes when he or she decides to join the Party is not limited to maintaining a generic belief in the worldview and values presumably shared by the majority of Party members. The worldview protected by Chapter 6 possesses different sides and different facets, and therefore it is expressed in various ways. The ways in which this worldview is expressed and acted upon depend on the contexts where political activities occur. Political activities are understood broadly, as involving the day-to-day operations of Party organizations (organizational discipline);  the professional conduct of individual Party members  (integrity);  the impact Party members have on society (mass discipline); their work performance (work discipline), and finally  the way in which Party members live their lives after work (life discipline).  


Chapter 2 - Sources of CCP Law. CCP Regulations on Disciplinary Punishments

Previous posts on the same topics:

Comment: CCP Standards on Integrity and Self-Restraint
Comment: Chapter 1 - CCP Regulations on Disciplinary Punishments


As requested by Susan Finder (Hong Kong University), I am further commenting upon the CCP Regulations on Disciplinary Punishments. This post examines Chapter 2 of the Regulations - violations of discipline and disciplinary punishments.    

Chapter 2 (articles 6 - 15) lists and describes each one of the seven disciplinary punishments. These are punishments for natural persons (members of the Chinese Communist Party), and punishments for legal persons (Party organizations). Punishments for natural persons are:

(1) a warning (article 9)
(2) a serious warning (article 9)
(3) removal from Party posts (article 10)
(4) probation (article 11, article 13 for delegates to Party congresses)
(5) expulsion (article 12, article 13 for delegates to Party congresses)

while punishments for legal persons are:

(1) reorganization (article 14)
(2) dissolution (article 15)

Compared to the 1997 and to the 2004 regulations, Chapter 2 has not undergone significant changes. A new article has been inserted:

Article 13. Where delegates to Party congresses at any level receive a punishment higher than probation (probation included), the Party organization shall terminate their qualification as delegates (daibiao zige). 
第十三条 党的各级代表大会的代表受到留党察看以上(含留党察看)处分的,党组织应当终止其代表资格。

Article 13 is based on the CCP Trial Regulations on Electing Basic Organizations (here - in Chinese), and it is modeled after article 25 paragraph 1, CCP Trial Regulations on the Terms of Office of Delegates to the National and Local Party Congresses (here - in Chinese). 

Text of the Party Oath
Disciplinary measures (jilv chuli 纪律处理), or alternatively disciplinary punishments (jilv chufen 纪律处分) are applicable only when a violation of binding rules occurs. Article 6 specifies that binding rules are posed by:

(1) the Party Statute
(2) other intra-Party rules (dangnei fagui 党内法规)
(3) State law
(4) Policies of the Party and the State
(5) Socialist Morality
(6) The interest of the Party, the interest of the State and the People 

We already know from the Regulations on intra-party rules that the Party statute is the "cornerstone and basis on which other Party laws and regulations are enacted" (article 2). Differently from the Legislation Lawneither the Party Statute nor the Regulations on intra-party rules introduce a hierarchy of sources of law. Article 6 indirectly specifies what is a source of law -  in China and for Party members, listing several sources of law, one by one and in order of importance. 

Some of these are sources of the rules of intra-Party law, others give life to the rules of state law. Binding rules are posed also by policies (zhengce 政策), by morality (daode 道德), and by interest (liyi 利益). Policies, morality and interest are not generic and undetermined concepts - they are qualified as policies of the Party and the state, as socialist morality, and as the interest expressed by the Party first, and then by the State-and-people. Every organization has a set of written and unwritten rules, and the Chinese Communist Party is no exception. Rules posed by policy, socialist morality as well as those posed by interest may be written or unwritten. In the case of unwritten rules, they may be explicit - that is openly acknowledged by Party organizations, or implicit and unspoken. Regardless of the form moral rules and interest may take, the role of morality as a source of law  as been acknowledged, in various and different ways, by Western and Chinese authors as a  feature of Chinese law. An understanding of morality as a source of law, and the use of morality as a source of law is necessary to drive social forces towards a specific direction (see paragraph 16, Party Statute). 

Very similar considerations can be made in the case of interest. Article 6 of the Regulations is peculiar, as it does not refer to the interest of the people using the formulation - "interest of the Party and the People" (dang he renminde liyi 党和人民的利益) but, separates the interest of the Party-and-the-state from the interest of the people. Notice the use of the half comma and the conjunction "he":

 第六条 党组织和党员违反党章和其他党内法规, (....)、害党、国家和人民利益的行为依照规定应当给予纪律处理或者处分的,都必须受到追究

The claim, made by mainland Chinese media, that the Regulations have introduced a separation between Party law and State legislation is a claim that should be taken at face value. 

A further question posed by article 6 is the question of where does the force of law come from. The binding force of Party rules, policies, morality and interest derives from a person's decision to bind himself or herself to the Party. 
Oath-taking ceremony

As I have explained here, the choice to bind oneself in a "contract" with the Party is a voluntary choice, made by swearing an oath in front of the Party flag. The making of such a choice, as the making of any choice to bind oneself to a person, a group or an organization, produces rights and duties for both parties. Obligations (as well as rights) are generally known to prospective Party members, as the Party statute specifies what is expected from those who decide to join the Party.

These specifications are as follows:

Article 3. Party members must fulfill the following duties:(...)2) To implement the Party's basic line, principles and policies (...) 
3) To adhere to the principle that the interests of the Party and the people stand above everything else, subordinating their personal interests to the interests of the Party and the people, being the first to bear hardships and the last to enjoy comforts, working selflessly for the public interests and working to contribute more.
4) To conscientiously observe the Party discipline, abide by the laws and regulations of the state in an exemplary way, rigorously guard secrets of the Party and state, execute the Party's decisions, and accept any job and actively fulfill any task assigned them by the Party.  
Article 31. The primary Party organizations are militant bastions of the Party in the basic units of society, where all the Party's work proceeds and they serve as the foundation of its fighting capacity. Their main tasks are:
7) To see to it that Party and non-Party cadres strictly observe the law and administrative discipline and the financial and economic statutes and personnel regulations of the state and that none of them infringe on the interests of the state, the collective or the masses.


CCP Regulations on Disciplinary Punishment. Comment.

The CCP Regulations on Disciplinary Punishment was the second CCP regulatory document amended last week, on October 12, together with the CCP Standards on Integrity and Self-Restraint. I need not elaborate on the importance of the Regulations. The Regulation are to the Party legislative system what the Criminal Law of the PRC is to state law. 

The amendment to the Regulations on Disciplinary Punishment was planned since 2013, when Chapter 6 of the intra-party legislative plan eloquently spoke of "perfecting Party rules and regulations on anti-corruption and earnestly placing power within a cage of regulations" (paragraph 4) explaining how the circumstances of disciplinary violations, the sentencing standards and the definition of disciplinary violations were among the weak points of the 2004 Regulations. The amendment has remedied these and other deficiencies. Most importantly, it has introduced new concepts and principles in Party legislation, systematized them, or specified the meaning of existing concepts and principles. Most of these principles and concepts are contained in the first chapter of the Regulations. 

In the rest of this post therefore I will attempt to read the first chapter of the 2015 Regulations against its 1997 and 2004 versions. 

Article 1

The present Regulations have been enacted on the basis of the Statute of the Chinese Communist Party, to safeguard the Party statute, make Party discipline stern, purify Party organizations, protect the democratic rights of Party members, educate Party members in the respect of discipline and in the observance of the law, safeguard the unity of the Party, guarantee the implementation of the Party's basic line, its direction, policies, resolutions and laws and regulations of the State.
第一条 为维护党的章程和其他党内法规,严肃党的纪律,纯洁党的组织,保障党员民主权利,教育党员遵纪守法,维护党的团结统一,保证党的路线、方针、政策、决议和国家法律法规的贯彻执行,根据《中国共产党章程》,制定本条例。

Article 1 lists one by one the principles behind the 2014 Regulations. First, there is the requirement of consistency between the broader goals and principles of Party discipline set by the Party statute and other intra-party regulations, and those of the Regulations. Then, the reasons why the principles were enacted are listed. Article 1 is closely similar to article 2 of the 2004 Regulations. The 2004 Regulations posed no requirements about consistency. They spoke of "tasks" (renwu 任务) to be achieved - not by Party members, but by the Regulations themselves: "本条例的任务, 是... (the tasks of the present Regulations are)". Whereas now "safeguarding the Party statute" etc. are no longer qualified as tasks or purposes (mudi 目的), but may be the reasons behind the proscription of certain conducts. 

Article 2
The present Regulations take Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping theory, the important thought of the Three Represents, the scientific outlook on development as their guide, and deepen the implementation of the spirit of the series of important speeches of General Secretary Xi Jinping, and carry out the strategic deployment of comprehensively strictly ruling the Party. 
第二条 本条例以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,深入贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神,落实全面从严治党战略部署。 

Article 2 references the Party Statute (paragraph 2), with the significant difference that Xi Jinping's important speeches and the so-called "third comprehensive" are mentioned immediately after Hu Jintao's Scientific Outlook on Development. Jiang Zemin's Three Represents were not named in the 1997 Regulations, for the obvious reason that this political theory was created in 2000. But, they were part of the ideological basis behind the 2004 Regulations. Article 1 recited "The CCP Regulations on disciplinary punishment take Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought (...) and the important thought of the Three Represents as their guide." In 2004 the Three Represents had already been official acknowledged as a part of CCP ideology. 

Article 3 
The Party Statute is the most basic intra-party regulation, it is the established standard whereby the Party governs the Party. Party discipline is the rule of conduct that must be respected by Party organizations at every level and by the entire body of Party members. Party organizations and Party members must voluntarily abide by the Party statute, strictly implement and safeguard Party discipline, voluntarily accept the constraints posed by Party discipline, and abide by the laws and regulations of the State in an exemplary way. 

第三条 党章是最根本的党内法规,是管党治党的总规矩。党的纪律是党的各级组织和全体党员必须遵守的行为规则。党组织和党员必须自觉遵守党章,严格执行和维护党的纪律,自觉接受党的纪律约束,模范遵守国家法律法规。

Article 3 specifies the place the Regulations occupy in the CCP regulatory system relative to the primary source of intra-party legislation - the CCP Statute; specifies what Party discipline is; introduces four requirements (必须 bixu) for natural persons who have sworn an oath to the Party, and for legal persons (Party organizations). Neither the four requirements nor the statement that the Party statute is the primary source of intra-party legislation are new. Both of them were more or less absent from the 1997 and 2004 Regulations, but their absence can be explained by the lesser focus that, until very recently, was placed on legal reform within the Party. The definition of Party discipline is the same as the one contained in article 37 of the Party statute. The Statute does not go beyond defining Party discipline as "the rule of conduct (...)". The 2014 Regulations instead conceptualize Party discipline as composed by six interrelated and interdependent aspects of the activities of legal and natural persons: 

(1) political discipline; 
(2) organizational discipline; 
(3) integrity (廉洁纪律); 
(4) mass discipline; 
(5) work discipline; 
(6) life discipline. 

This conceptualization of Party discipline is different from the one  adopted by Party commentators, and which does not include mass discipline, work discipline and life discipline. The 1997 Regulations did not refer to party discipline but to "errors" (错误 cuowu), whereas the 2004 Regulations divided party discipline in political discipline, organizational and personnel discipline, and self-restraint and self-discipline.

Article 4
The Party's work of disciplinary punishment shall uphold the following principles:
(1) the Party must govern the Party, and the Party must be strictly governed.  Strengthen the education, management and supervision of Party organizations at every level and of the entire body of Party members; place discipline at the first place; pay attention to catching them at an early stage and catch the small ones.
(2) All are equal before Party discipline. Severity must be used on Party organizations and Party members who contravene Party discipline, discipline shall be enforced fairly; the Party does not allow Party organizations and Party members not to accept the constraints posed by Party discipline. 
(3) Seek truth from facts. Where a Party organization or a Party member keeps a conduct that contravenes Party discipline, the nature of their violation of discipline shall be determined in accordance with the facts as the basis, and the Party Constitution and other intra-Party regulations and the State law and regulations as the criterion, by distinguishing between different circumstances, and giving an appropriate punishment.
(4) Democratic centralism. Party discipline punishment shall be decided after a collective discussion by the Party organization, according to statutory procedure. Individuals and a minority (of Party members) are not allowed to arbitrarily make and approve decisions. Lower-level Party organizations must enforce the decision that higher-level Party organizations have made on Party organizations or Party members who have contravened discipline.
(5) Learn from past mistakes to avoid future ones, cure the sickness to save the patient.  Combining punishment and education shall be practiced in dealing with Party organizations and Party members who have contravened discipline, to achieve "tempering leniency and severity".
第四条 党的纪律处分工作应当坚持以下原则:






Article 4 states the five principles that should inform and shape Party discipline. The point of whether the five 原则 listed under article 5 are political-legal principles (or legal principles, or political principles, or principles tout court), in a Western sense, is still unsettled. At least, according to those who drafted the 2015 Regulations, "the Party must govern the Party", "All are equal before Party discipline" etc. are the five driving forces that ought to determine how the Regulations are understood and enforced. The principles of Party discipline were listed in chapter 2 of the 1997 Regulations. The 2004 Regulations mentioned "all are equal", "seek truth from facts", "uphold democratic centralism", "learn from past mistakes...", "the Party must govern the Party" under articles 4, 5, 6, and 7. 

What Party discipline principles are, and what they mean to those who use them are entirely different questions. To these questions there are at least five possible answers:

(1) Skeptics would construct arguments to prove that the wording of article 4, despite all the work that must have gone into drafting the amendments, soliciting comments, reading the written comments sent by provincial party units, redrafting the Regulations and finally achieving a consensus on the final formulation of this and other articles, is meaningless. 

(2) Philologists, linguists, historians and political scientists would point out the strong similarities in language between the 2014 Regulations, Xi Jinping's speeches, and certain speeches of Mao Zedong, using Mao's works as textual evidence of a direct ideological continuity between Mao Zedong and Xi Jinping. This interpretation would however be unable to account for the changes Party ideology has undergone over time.

(3) Realists would notice how Party theorists are still at work to achieve a consensus on what each one of those principles really means. Therefore, they would express caution as to what these and other similar formulations mean. Else, they would reason by analogy: if "the sky is high and the Emperor is far away", or if "the higher ups have policies, while the lower downs have their own ways of getting around them" are true, then it is also true (or at least possible) that local Party organizations may distort the intended meaning of Party discipline principles, regardless of what this meaning may be. 

(4) Lawyers would approach the questions of (1) what principles of Party discipline are and (2) what they mean to those who use them using definitions, analytical concepts and methodologies that belong to their legal system. The choice to use any of these definitions, analytic concepts and methodologies, however, would pose the the inherent risk of conceptual misalignment. 



Chinese Communist Party Standards on Integrity and Self-Restraint - comment.

The Chinese Communist Party Standards on Integrity and Self Restraint (the Standards - here, in Chinese) were adopted by the CCP Central Committee on October 12, together with the CCP Regulations on Disciplinary Punishments (here, in Chinese). This post offers a short and very simple commentary on the Standards. 

Together with the Regulations on Disciplinary Punishment, the Standards are one of the most important pieces of Party legislation. The Regulations on Disciplinary Punishment define certain conducts as violations of Party discipline and specify the punishment associated with each one of them. The Standards, as they were enacted in 1997 (here - Chinese) and amended in February 2010 (here - in Chinese), aimed at "regulating the honest performance of official duties" (规范廉政从政行为). 

As I have explained elsewhere, the Standards did more than specify a set of principles of conducts Party cadres should have followed: they proscribed a broad range of behaviors. Most of the behaviors proscribed by the Standards however duplicated conducts defined as criminal offenses by the Criminal Law of the PRC. The overlaps between Party legislation and the Criminal Law were among the factors that allowed a considerable discretion in the punishment of erring cadres. Overlaps were not entirely inconsistent with the rules on inner-Party law making, as these rules were effective until recently. Between 1990 and 2012, intra-Party rule making was regulated by the CCP Regulations on the procedure to enact intra-Party rules (for trial implementation). This document did not pose any requirements about consistency between Party rules and regulations and the state law. 

Things changed in 2012, when article 7 of the CCP Regulations on Enacting Party Rules and Regulations  specified the principles that should guide intra-Party rule making. These are:

(1) starting from the developmental needs of the cause of the Party and from the realities of Party building;
(2) implementing the Party's theory and line, principles and policies taking the Party Statute os the fundamental basis;
(3) complying with provisions that the Party must conduct its activities within the scope of the [State] Constitution and the law;
(4) meeting the needs of scientific governance, democratic governance, governance on the basis of the law;
(5) advancing the institutionalization, regulatization, proceduralization of Party construction;
(6) upholding democratic centralism, give full play to inner-Party democracy, safeguard the unity of the Party;
(7) safeguarding the unity and authoritativeness of the system of Party laws and regulations;
(8) privileging ease of use and avoid complexity and redundancies
Conflicts and overlaps between the Standards and the Criminal Law violated principles (3) and (8). The 2015 amendment to the Standards has solved most of these problems by reducing the number of provisions from eighteen to eight, and introducing fundamental changes in their substantive content. 

"Standards", the 2012 Regulations on Party rules say, are a category of Party rules that "make basic provisions on the political life of the Party, its organizational life, and the conduct of Party members." (art. 4). Besides,"perfecting the construction of a system of morality for Party members and cadres" is among the goals of the current intra-Party legislative plan  (section 3, paragraph 3).

The Standards look closer to a code of ethics for Party members and Party cadres, than to any other piece of legislation on Party discipline. Adherence to the ethical standards set for members of the CCP after all is a fundamental component of what the 2012 Regulations call "political life". Given the requirements of "political life" and the opportunities for unethical behavior are in part determined by the rank a cadres occupies, the Standards are divided in two sections:

- regulating Party members' integrity and self-discipline
- regulating leading cadres' integrity and self-discipline

Each one of the two sections poses four behavioral prescriptions, which are expressed using political rather than legal language: "uphold the distinction between public and private; the public comes first, the private comes next; sacrificing yourself for the public", or "use power with integrity; protect the fundamental interest of the people" and so on. 

One should not be tempted to dismiss the Standards as a mere exercise in political rhetoric. Together with the amended version of the Regulations on Disciplinary Punishment, as well as other legislative and regulatory documents, they have given legal form to Xi Jinping's theory of the "Four Comprehensives". Even though the short preamble to the Standards does not reference the Four Comprehensives, the Notice with which both the Standards and the Regulations were issued makes it clear that the two regulations embody "comprehensively strictly governing the Party" and introduce a partially new and  different set of ethical and behavioral standards. 






  第一条 坚持公私分明,先公后私,克己奉公。

  第二条 坚持崇廉拒腐,清白做人,干净做事。

  第三条 坚持尚俭戒奢,艰苦朴素,勤俭节约。

  第四条 坚持吃苦在前,享受在后,甘于奉献。


  第五条 廉洁从政,自觉保持人民公仆本色。

  第六条 廉洁用权,自觉维护人民根本利益。

  第七条 廉洁修身,自觉提升思想道德境界。

  第八条 廉洁齐家,自觉带头树立良好家风。


第一编 总 则

第一章 指导思想、原则和适用范围

  第一条 为维护党的章程和其他党内法规,严肃党的纪律,纯洁党的组织,保障党员民主权利,教育党员遵纪守法,维护党的团结统一,保证党的路线、方针、政策、决议和国家法律法规的贯彻执行,根据《中国共产党章程》,制定本条例。

  第二条 本条例以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,深入贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神,落实全面从严治党战略部署。

  第三条 党章是最根本的党内法规,是管党治党的总规矩。党的纪律是党的各级组织和全体党员必须遵守的行为规则。党组织和党员必须自觉遵守党章,严格执行和维护党的纪律,自觉接受党的纪律约束,模范遵守国家法律法规。

  第四条 党的纪律处分工作应当坚持以下原则:






  第五条 本条例适用于违犯党纪应当受到党纪追究的党组织和党员。

第二章 违纪与纪律处分

  第六条 党组织和党员违反党章和其他党内法规,违反国家法律法规,违反党和国家政策,违反社会主义道德,危害党、国家和人民利益的行为,依照规定应当给予纪律处理或者处分的,都必须受到追究。

  第七条 对党员的纪律处分种类:






  第八条 对严重违犯党纪的党组织的纪律处理措施:



  第九条 党员受到警告处分一年内、受到严重警告处分一年半内,不得在党内提升职务和向党外组织推荐担任高于其原任职务的党外职务。

  第十条 撤销党内职务处分,是指撤销受处分党员由党内选举或者组织任命的党内职务。对于在党内担任两个以上职务的,党组织在作处分决定时,应当明确是撤销其一切职务还是某个职务。如果决定撤销其某个职务,必须撤销其担任的最高职务。如果决定撤销其两个以上职务,则必须从其担任的最高职务开始依次撤销。对于在党外组织担任职务的,应当建议党外组织依照规定作出相应处理。



  第十一条 留党察看处分,分为留党察看一年、留党察看二年。对于受到留党察看处分一年的党员,期满后仍不符合恢复党员权利条件的,应当延长一年留党察看期限。留党察看期限最长不得超过二年。



  第十二条 党员受到开除党籍处分,五年内不得重新入党。另有规定不准重新入党的,依照规定。

  第十三条 党的各级代表大会的代表受到留党察看以上(含留党察看)处分的,党组织应当终止其代表资格。

  第十四条 对于严重违犯党纪、本身又不能纠正的党组织领导机构,应当予以改组。受到改组处理的党组织领导机构成员,除应当受到撤销党内职务以上(含撤销党内职务)处分的外,均自然免职。

  第十五条 对于全体或者多数党员严重违犯党纪的党组织,应当予以解散。对于受到解散处理的党组织中的党员,应当逐个审查。其中,符合党员条件的,应当重新登记,并参加新的组织过党的生活;不符合党员条件的,应当对其进行教育、限期改正,经教育仍无转变的,予以劝退或者除名;有违纪行为的,依照规定予以追究。

第三章 纪律处分运用规则

  第十六条 有下列情形之一的,可以从轻或者减轻处分:






  第十七条 根据案件的特殊情况,由中央纪委决定或者经省(部)级纪委(不含副省级市纪委)决定并呈报中央纪委批准,对违纪党员也可以在本条例规定的处分幅度以外减轻处分。

  第十八条 对于党员违犯党纪应当给予警告或者严重警告处分,但是具有本条例第十六条规定的情形之一或者本条例分则中另有规定的,可以给予批评教育或者组织处理,免予党纪处分。对违纪党员免予处分,应当作出书面结论。

  第十九条 有下列情形之一的,应当从重或者加重处分:




  第二十条 故意违纪受处分后又因故意违纪应当受到党纪处分的,应当从重处分。


  第二十一条 从轻处分,是指在本条例规定的违纪行为应当受到的处分幅度以内,给予较轻的处分。


  第二十二条 减轻处分,是指在本条例规定的违纪行为应当受到的处分幅度以外,减轻一档给予处分。



  第二十三条 一人有本条例规定的两种以上(含两种)应当受到党纪处分的违纪行为,应当合并处理,按其数种违纪行为中应当受到的最高处分加重一档给予处分;其中一种违纪行为应当受到开除党籍处分的,应当给予开除党籍处分。

  第二十四条 一个违纪行为同时触犯本条例两个以上(含两个)条款的,依照处分较重的条款定性处理。


  第二十五条 二人以上(含二人)共同故意违纪的,对为首者,从重处分,本条例另有规定的除外;对其他成员,按照其在共同违纪中所起的作用和应负的责任,分别给予处分。



  第二十六条 党组织领导机构集体作出违犯党纪的决定或者实施其他违犯党纪的行为,对具有共同故意的成员,按共同违纪处理;对过失违纪的成员,按照各自在集体违纪中所起的作用和应负的责任分别给予处分。

第四章 对违法犯罪党员的纪律处分

  第二十七条 党组织在纪律审查中发现党员有贪污贿赂、失职渎职等刑法规定的行为涉嫌犯罪的,应当给予撤销党内职务、留党察看或者开除党籍处分。

  第二十八条 党组织在纪律审查中发现党员有刑法规定的行为,虽不涉及犯罪但须追究党纪责任的,应当视具体情节给予警告直至开除党籍处分。

  第二十九条 党组织在纪律审查中发现党员有其他违法行为,影响党的形象,损害党、国家和人民利益的,应当视情节轻重给予党纪处分。


  第三十条 党员受到党纪追究,涉嫌违法犯罪的,应当及时移送有关国家机关依法处理。需要给予行政处分或者其他纪律处分的,应当向有关机关或者组织提出建议。

  第三十一条 党员被依法逮捕的,党组织应当按照管理权限中止其表决权、选举权和被选举权等党员权利。根据司法机关处理结果,可以恢复其党员权利的,应当及时予以恢复。

  第三十二条 党员犯罪情节轻微,人民检察院依法作出不起诉决定的,或者人民法院依法作出有罪判决并免予刑事处罚的,应当给予撤销党内职务、留党察看或者开除党籍处分。


  第三十三条 党员犯罪,有下列情形之一的,应当给予开除党籍处分:





  第三十四条 党员依法受到刑事责任追究的,党组织应当根据司法机关的生效判决、裁定、决定及其认定的事实、性质和情节,依照本条例规定给予党纪处分或者组织处理。




第五章 其他规定

  第三十五条 预备党员违犯党纪,情节较轻,可以保留预备党员资格的,党组织应当对其批评教育或者延长预备期;情节较重的,应当取消其预备党员资格。

  第三十六条 对违纪后下落不明的党员,应当区别情况作出处理:



  第三十七条 违纪党员在党组织作出处分决定前死亡,或者在死亡之后发现其曾有严重违纪行为,对于应当给予开除党籍处分的,开除其党籍;对于应当给予留党察看以下(含留党察看)处分的,作出书面结论,不再给予党纪处分。

  第三十八条 违纪行为有关责任人员的区分:





  第三十九条 本条例所称主动交代,是指涉嫌违纪的党员在组织初核前向有关组织交代自己的问题,或者在初核和立案调查其问题期间交代组织未掌握的问题。


  第四十条 计算经济损失主要计算直接经济损失。直接经济损失,是指与违纪行为有直接因果关系而造成财产损毁的实际价值。

  第四十一条 对于违纪行为所获得的经济利益,应当收缴或者责令退赔。



  第四十二条 党纪处分决定作出后,应当在一个月内向受处分党员所在党的基层组织中的全体党员及其本人宣布,并按照干部管理权限和组织关系将处分决定材料归入受处分者档案;对于受到撤销党内职务以上(含撤销党内职务)处分的,还应当在一个月内办理职务、工资等相应变更手续;涉及撤销或者调整其党外职务的,应当建议党外组织及时撤销或者调整其党外职务。特殊情况下,经作出或者批准作出处分决定的组织批准,可以适当延长办理期限。办理期限最长不得超过六个月。

  第四十三条 执行党纪处分决定的机关或者受处分党员所在单位,应当在六个月内将处分决定的执行情况向作出或者批准处分决定的机关报告。

  第四十四条 本条例总则适用于有党纪处分规定的其他党内法规,但是中共中央发布或者批准发布的其他党内法规有特别规定的除外。

第二编 分 则

第六章 对违反政治纪律行为的处分

  第四十五条 通过信息网络、广播、电视、报刊、书籍、讲座、论坛、报告会、座谈会等方式,公开发表坚持资产阶级自由化立场、反对四项基本原则,反对党的改革开放决策的文章、演说、宣言、声明等的,给予开除党籍处分。


  第四十六条 通过信息网络、广播、电视、报刊、书籍、讲座、论坛、报告会、座谈会等方式,有下列行为之一,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分:





  第四十七条 制作、贩卖、传播第四十五条、第四十六条所列内容之一的书刊、音像制品、电子读物、网络音视频资料等,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。


  第四十八条 组织、参加反对党的基本理论、基本路线、基本纲领、基本经验、基本要求或者重大方针政策的集会、游行、示威等活动的,或者以组织讲座、论坛、报告会、座谈会等方式,反对党的基本理论、基本路线、基本纲领、基本经验、基本要求或者重大方针政策,造成严重不良影响的,对策划者、组织者和骨干分子,给予开除党籍处分。




  第四十九条 组织、参加旨在反对党的领导、反对社会主义制度或者敌视政府等组织的,对策划者、组织者和骨干分子,给予开除党籍处分。


  第五十条 组织、参加会道门或者邪教组织的,对策划者、组织者和骨干分子,给予开除党籍处分。



  第五十一条 在党内组织秘密集团或者组织其他分裂党的活动的,给予开除党籍处分。


  第五十二条 在党内搞团团伙伙、结党营私、拉帮结派、培植私人势力或者通过搞利益交换、为自己营造声势等活动捞取政治资本的,给予严重警告或者撤销党内职务处分;情节严重的,给予留党察看或者开除党籍处分。

  第五十三条 有下列行为之一的,对直接责任者和领导责任者,给予严重警告或者撤销党内职务处分;情节严重的,给予留党察看或者开除党籍处分:




  第五十四条 挑拨民族关系制造事端或者参加民族分裂活动的,对策划者、组织者和骨干分子,给予开除党籍处分。




  第五十五条 组织、利用宗教活动反对党的路线、方针、政策和决议,破坏民族团结的,对策划者、组织者和骨干分子,给予留党察看或者开除党籍处分。




  第五十六条 组织、利用宗族势力对抗党和政府,妨碍党和国家的方针政策以及决策部署的实施,或者破坏党的基层组织建设的,对策划者、组织者和骨干分子,给予留党察看或者开除党籍处分。



  第五十七条 对抗组织审查,有下列行为之一的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分:






  第五十八条 组织迷信活动的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。



  第五十九条 在国(境)外、外国驻华使(领)馆申请政治避难,或者违纪后逃往国(境)外、外国驻华使(领)馆的,给予开除党籍处分。



  第六十条 在涉外活动中,其言行在政治上造成恶劣影响,损害党和国家尊严、利益的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。

  第六十一条 党员领导干部对违反政治纪律和政治规矩等错误思想和行为放任不管,搞无原则一团和气,造成不良影响的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第六十二条 违反党的优良传统和工作惯例等党的规矩,在政治上造成不良影响的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。

第七章 对违反组织纪律行为的处分

  第六十三条 违反民主集中制原则,拒不执行或者擅自改变党组织作出的重大决定,或者违反议事规则,个人或者少数人决定重大问题的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第六十四条 下级党组织拒不执行或者擅自改变上级党组织决定的,对直接责任者和领导责任者,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第六十五条 拒不执行党组织的分配、调动、交流等决定的,给予警告、严重警告或者撤销党内职务处分。


  第六十六条 不按照有关规定或者工作要求,向组织请示报告重大问题、重要事项的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。


  第六十七条 有下列行为之一,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分:






  第六十八条 党员领导干部违反有关规定组织、参加自发成立的老乡会、校友会、战友会等,情节严重的,给予警告、严重警告或者撤销党内职务处分。

  第六十九条 诬告陷害他人意在使他人受纪律追究的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。

  第七十条 侵犯党员的表决权、选举权和被选举权,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务处分。


  第七十一条 有下列行为之一的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分:







  第七十二条 有下列行为之一的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分:




  第七十三条 在干部选拔任用工作中,违反干部选拔任用规定,对直接责任者和领导责任者,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。


  第七十四条 在干部、职工的录用、考核、职务晋升、职称评定和征兵、安置复转军人等工作中,隐瞒、歪曲事实真相,或者利用职权或者职务上的影响违反有关规定为本人或者其他人谋取利益的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。


  第七十五条 违反党章和其他党内法规的规定,采取弄虚作假或者其他手段把不符合党员条件的人发展为党员,或者为非党员出具党员身份证明的,对直接责任者和领导责任者,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务处分。


  第七十六条 违反有关规定取得外国国籍或者获取国(境)外永久居留资格、长期居留许可的,给予撤销党内职务、留党察看或者开除党籍处分。

  第七十七条 违反有关规定办理因私出国(境)证件、前往港澳通行证,或者未经批准出入国(边)境,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务处分;情节严重的,给予留党察看处分。

  第七十八条 驻外机构或者临时出国(境)团(组)中的党员擅自脱离组织,或者从事外事、机要、军事等工作的党员违反有关规定同国(境)外机构、人员联系和交往的,给予警告、严重警告或者撤销党内职务处分。

  第七十九条 驻外机构或者临时出国(境)团(组)中的党员,脱离组织出走时间不满六个月又自动回归的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;脱离组织出走时间超过六个月的,按照自行脱党处理,党内予以除名。


第八章 对违反廉洁纪律行为的处分

  第八十条 利用职权或者职务上的影响为他人谋取利益,本人的配偶、子女及其配偶等亲属和其他特定关系人收受对方财物,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务、留党察看或者开除党籍处分。

  第八十一条 相互利用职权或者职务上的影响为对方及其配偶、子女及其配偶等亲属、身边工作人员和其他特定关系人谋取利益搞权权交易的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。

  第八十二条 纵容、默许配偶、子女及其配偶等亲属和身边工作人员利用党员干部本人职权或者职务上的影响谋取私利,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。


  第八十三条 收受可能影响公正执行公务的礼品、礼金、消费卡等,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。


  第八十四条 向从事公务的人员及其配偶、子女及其配偶等亲属和其他特定关系人赠送明显超出正常礼尚往来的礼品、礼金、消费卡等,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第八十五条 利用职权或者职务上的影响操办婚丧喜庆事宜,在社会上造成不良影响的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务处分。


  第八十六条 接受可能影响公正执行公务的宴请或者旅游、健身、娱乐等活动安排,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第八十七条 违反有关规定取得、持有、实际使用运动健身卡、会所和俱乐部会员卡、高尔夫球卡等各种消费卡,或者违反有关规定出入私人会所,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第八十八条 违反有关规定从事营利活动,有下列行为之一,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分:









  第八十九条 党员领导干部离职或者退(离)休后违反有关规定接受原任职务管辖的地区和业务范围内的企业和中介机构的聘任,或者个人从事与原任职务管辖业务相关的营利活动,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务处分;情节严重的,给予留党察看处分。


  第九十条 党员领导干部的配偶、子女及其配偶,违反有关规定在该党员领导干部管辖的区域或者业务范围内从事可能影响其公正执行公务的经营活动,或者在该党员领导干部管辖的区域或者业务范围内的外商独资企业、中外合资企业中担任由外方委派、聘任的高级职务的,该党员领导干部应当按照规定予以纠正;拒不纠正的,其本人应当辞去现任职务或者由组织予以调整职务;不辞去现任职务或者不服从组织调整职务的,给予撤销党内职务处分。

  第九十一条 党和国家机关违反有关规定经商办企业的,对直接责任者和领导责任者,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务处分。

  第九十二条 党员领导干部违反工作、生活保障制度,在交通、医疗、警卫等方面为本人、配偶、子女及其配偶等亲属和其他特定关系人谋求特殊待遇,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第九十三条 在分配、购买住房中侵犯国家、集体利益,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。

  第九十四条 利用职权或者职务上的影响,侵占非本人经管的公私财物,或者以象征性地支付钱款等方式侵占公私财物,或者无偿、象征性地支付报酬接受服务、使用劳务,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。


  第九十五条 利用职权或者职务上的影响,违反有关规定占用公物归个人使用,时间超过六个月,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务处分。



  第九十六条 违反有关规定组织、参加用公款支付的宴请、高消费娱乐、健身活动,或者用公款购买赠送、发放礼品,对直接责任者和领导责任者,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。

  第九十七条 违反有关规定自定薪酬或者滥发津贴、补贴、奖金等,对直接责任者和领导责任者,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。

  第九十八条 有下列行为之一,对直接责任者和领导责任者,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分:



  第九十九条 违反公务接待管理规定,超标准、超范围接待或者借机大吃大喝,对直接责任者和领导责任者,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务处分。

  第一百条 违反有关规定配备、购买、更换、装饰、使用公务用车或者有其他违反公务用车管理规定的行为,对直接责任者和领导责任者,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第一百零一条 违反会议活动管理规定,有下列行为之一,对直接责任者和领导责任者,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务处分:




  第一百零二条 违反办公用房管理规定,有下列行为之一,对直接责任者和领导责任者,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务处分:



  第一百零三条 搞权色交易或者给予财物搞钱色交易的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。

  第一百零四条 有其他违反廉洁纪律规定行为的,应当视具体情节给予警告直至开除党籍处分。

第九章 对违反群众纪律行为的处分

  第一百零五条 有下列行为之一,对直接责任者和领导责任者,情节较轻的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分:







  第一百零六条 干涉群众生产经营自主权,致使群众财产遭受较大损失的,对直接责任者和领导责任者,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第一百零七条 在社会保障、政策扶持、救灾救济款物分配等事项中优亲厚友、明显有失公平的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第一百零八条 有下列行为之一,对直接责任者和领导责任者,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分:





  第一百零九条 不顾群众意愿,盲目铺摊子、上项目,致使国家、集体或者群众财产和利益遭受较大损失的,对直接责任者和领导责任者,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第一百一十条 遇到国家财产和群众生命财产受到严重威胁时,能救而不救,情节较重的,给予警告、严重警告或者撤销党内职务处分;情节严重的,给予留党察看或者开除党籍处分。

  第一百一十一条 不按照规定公开党务、政务、厂务、村(居)务等,侵犯群众知情权,对直接责任者和领导责任者,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第一百一十二条 有其他违反群众纪律规定行为的,应当视具体情节给予警告直至开除党籍处分。

第十章 对违反工作纪律行为的处分

  第一百一十三条 党组织负责人在工作中不负责任或者疏于管理,有下列情形之一,给党、国家和人民利益以及公共财产造成较大损失的,对直接责任者和领导责任者,给予警告或者严重警告处分;造成重大损失的,给予撤销党内职务、留党察看或者开除党籍处分:



  第一百一十四条 党组织不履行全面从严治党主体责任或者履行全面从严治党主体责任不力,造成严重损害或者严重不良影响的,对直接责任者和领导责任者,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第一百一十五条 党组织有下列行为之一,对直接责任者和领导责任者,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分:




  第一百一十六条 因工作不负责任致使所管理的人员叛逃的,对直接责任者和领导责任者,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务处分。


  第一百一十七条 在上级单位检查、视察工作或者向上级单位汇报、报告工作时对应当报告的事项不报告或者不如实报告,造成严重损害或者严重不良影响的,对直接责任者和领导责任者,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分。

  第一百一十八条 党员领导干部违反有关规定干预和插手市场经济活动,有下列行为之一,造成不良影响的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分:






  第一百一十九条 党员领导干部违反有关规定干预和插手司法活动、执纪执法活动,向有关地方或者部门打招呼、说情,或者以其他方式对司法活动、执纪执法活动施加影响,情节较轻的,给予严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。


  第一百二十条 泄露、扩散或者窃取党组织关于干部选拔任用、纪律审查等尚未公开事项或者其他应当保密的内容的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。


  第一百二十一条 在考试、录取工作中,有泄露试题、考场舞弊、涂改考卷、违规录取等违反有关规定行为的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。

  第一百二十二条 以不正当方式谋求本人或者其他人用公款出国(境),情节较轻的,给予警告处分;情节较重的,给予严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务处分。

  第一百二十三条 临时出国(境)团(组)或者人员中的党员,擅自延长在国(境)外期限,或者擅自变更路线的,对直接责任者和领导责任者,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务处分。

  第一百二十四条 驻外机构或者临时出国(境)团(组)中的党员,触犯驻在国家、地区的法律、法令或者不尊重驻在国家、地区的宗教习俗,情节较重的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务、留党察看或者开除党籍处分。

  第一百二十五条 在党的纪律检查、组织、宣传、统一战线工作以及机关工作等其他工作中,不履行或者不正确履行职责,造成损失或者不良影响的,应当视具体情节给予警告直至开除党籍处分。

第十一章 对违反生活纪律行为的处分

  第一百二十六条 生活奢靡、贪图享乐、追求低级趣味,造成不良影响的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节严重的,给予撤销党内职务处分。

  第一百二十七条 与他人发生不正当性关系,造成不良影响的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。


  第一百二十八条 违背社会公序良俗,在公共场所有不当行为,造成不良影响的,给予警告或者严重警告处分;情节较重的,给予撤销党内职务或者留党察看处分;情节严重的,给予开除党籍处分。

  第一百二十九条 有其他严重违反社会公德、家庭美德行为的,应当视具体情节给予警告直至开除党籍处分。

第三编 附 则

  第一百三十条 各省、自治区、直辖市党委可以根据本条例,结合各自工作的实际情况,制定单项实施规定。

  第一百三十一条 中央军事委员会可以根据本条例,结合中国人民解放军和中国人民武装警察部队的实际情况,制定补充规定或者单项规定。

  第一百三十二条 本条例由中央纪律检查委员会负责解释。

  第一百三十三条 本条例自2016年1月1日起施行。